Trade Agreements Health
The included studies were most often published in “Globalization and Health” (3 studies), with the remainder divided between public health and social science journals (10 studies), book chapters (2 studies) and empirical policy reports (2 studies) (see additional file 1). Figure 4 shows the results of our co-quote analysis. Thow AM, Snowdon W. The impact of trade and trade policy on food and health in the Pacific Islands. Trade, food, nutrition and health: perspectives and policy options. 2010;147. Seventeen quantitative studies met our inclusion criteria. There was consistent evidence that the implementation of trade agreements was linked to increased consumption of processed food and sugary beverages. The issuance of import certificates for patented drugs has resulted in improved access to medicines. Implementation of trade agreements and related measures is also correlated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease and a higher body mass index (BMI), while correlations with tobacco use, under-five mortality, maternal mortality and life expectancy were inconclusive. Overall, the quality of the studies is low or moderate and the analysis of contributors has shown a relative isolation of public health from the economy. Stuckler D, McKee M, Ebrahim S, Basu S.
Production Epidemic: The role of global producers in the growing consumption of unhealthy raw materials, including processed foods, alcohol and tobacco. Med PloS. 2012;9 (6):10. Previous studies on ATR have been published in various disciplines and have analysed in detail the impact of ATRs on a number of political and economic phenomena . Studies on the health effects of ATRs and their broader social consequences are distinguished by their absence from this empirical literature. A number of mechanisms that link ATRs to health are presented in the conceptual framework of Figure 2, which contains lessons from a variety of disciplines, including social epidemiology, public health, political economy and economics. The conceptual framework considers ARTs as early distal determinants of population health and health equity because of their effects on social and environmental factors that influence downstream proximal determinants of health outcomes [19-21]. The framework focuses on three main intermediate mechanisms that link ATRs with health policy outcomes: production, consumption, health services and policy. This is based on the identification by Labonte and Schrecker (2007), Blouin et al. (2009) and Friel et al. (2015) [13, 22, 23].
Nevertheless, as we expect empirical evidence, the rather defensive instinct of those working in the field of public health is unfortunate, because while there are undeniable risks that need to be minimized, there are also benefits that can be maximized.12 Instead of focusing on strategies to ensure that health is not affected by commercial contracts , we could also focus on strategies. ensure that trade maximizes opportunities for improved public health.